65 Historical Facts About 007, James Bond

Updated on November 4, 2019
Kenna McHugh profile image

I've written, contributed to books on film, and worked in the film industry. I like to share insights into the movie-making business.

Author Ian Fleming on location in Jamaica with Sean Connery as James Bond while filming "Dr. No."
Author Ian Fleming on location in Jamaica with Sean Connery as James Bond while filming "Dr. No." | Source

James Bond Years

No Time to Die, also known as James Bond 25, will arrive in movie theaters while achieving the record of most movies ever produced by one franchise.

This article will look at some of the historical facts about James Bond.

By the permission of MGM, you will read, view photos, and watch video clips on historical facts of the author, Ian Fleming, producers, directors, writers, and actors behind the creation of the ever suave James Bond.

"No Time to Die" is Daniel Craig's fourth 007 movie.
"No Time to Die" is Daniel Craig's fourth 007 movie.

1. Longest Produced Franchise

James Bond ranks as one of the most productive franchises and the longest-running franchise ever, with 24 films produced and the 25th, No Time to Die, in production.

2. When Was Ian Fleming Born?

Ian Lancaster Fleming was born on May 28, 1908, and passed away on August 12, 1964. He left behind a genuine legacy of what it means to be a confident man who is stylish, charming, suave, and debonair as 007.

3. Fleming Worked in British Intelligence

The story of Fleming’s life holds intrigue and flair, just like his fictional character. In 1942 in Jamaica, Fleming arrived to meet his American opposite from the Office of Naval Intelligence, where he stayed with fellow Eton College and childhood friend, Ivar Bryce.

Bryce’s second wife owned a house in Jamaica, and Fleming was impressed with the location. After visiting the island, Fleming assured Bryce that when the war was over, he would come back, construct a house, and live on the island.

4. Fleming Designed and Built His Home in Jamaica

He returned to the island in 1946 and purchased an abandoned donkeys’ racetrack that overlooked the North Atlantic Ocean near Ochoa Rios, Oracabessa Bay.

He constructed his villa near the edge of a cliff with a view of his private beach. He named his villa "Goldeneye" and conceived and drew the plans himself with the intent of being economical with space in general. He commented, “Who wants a big bedroom?” This economy about space encompassed his kitchen area, too.

He went without glass windows and favored the tropical breezes to drift through the house. He designed conventional slatted louvers that folded back into the border of the window frame.

During the filming preparation of "Dr. No," Cubby Broccoli, Sean Connery, Ian Flemming, and Harry Saltzman look at a map of Jamaica.
During the filming preparation of "Dr. No," Cubby Broccoli, Sean Connery, Ian Flemming, and Harry Saltzman look at a map of Jamaica.

5. How Did Fleming Come up with "Goldeneye"?

"Goldeneye" came from one of the campaigns Fleming worked on during World War II, and he, by coincidence, was reading Reflections in a Golden Eye by Carson McCuller. The first stages of Goldeneye seemed barren and gloomy with lots of promise.

6. Playwright and Actor Noel Coward Was Goldeneye's First Tenant

In 1948, playwright, director, and actor Noel Coward, who was Fleming’s friend, came to visit and subsequently turn out to be his first occupant paying a mere £50 a week.

7. Goldeneye Has a Private Beach

He positioned the main house near where he hiked down to the private beach to fish and swim. He hollowed out a large area at the top of the cliff, designed a sunken garden, added a table, and chairs under a sunshade. He finalized the beach area by building concrete and rock stairs to access the beach.

8. Violet Cummings Was His Housekeeper

Fleming hired Violet Cummings, who was a local from north shore Jamaican. She became his devoted housekeeper at Goldeneye for 17 years.

9. Fleming Married Lady Ann Rothermere

His imminent wife, Lady Ann Rothermere, first visited Goldeneye in 1948. Fleming and Ann married off the coast about 18 miles from the villa in a small town called Port Maria in March 1952. Their only son, Caspar arrived five months later in London, August 1952.

In Jamaica, while filming of "Dr. No" in 1962 Sean Connery with Jacqueline, and Harry Saltzman, and Cubby and Dana Broccoli.
In Jamaica, while filming of "Dr. No" in 1962 Sean Connery with Jacqueline, and Harry Saltzman, and Cubby and Dana Broccoli.

10. "Casino Royale" Was the First James Bond Book

Fleming’s first James Bond novel Casino Royale was written at Goldeneye in 1952 and published in 1953. Every successive Bond book was penned at Goldeneye.

11. Origin of James Bond Name

The source of Fleming choosing the hero’s name comes from the name of the author of his ‘Jamaican bible,’ A Field Guide to the Birds of the West Indies, by James Bond, who happens to be an American ornithologist.

12. Fleming Wrote 14 Stories About James Bond, 007

Fleming wrote 12 novels and two collections of short stories in Jamaica. All 14 stories were about James Bond.

13. Fleming Wrote on a Gold-Plated Typewriter

He rewarded himself for his completion of Casino Royale by purchasing a custom-made typewriter he shipped from New York via Royal Typewriter Company.

The typewriter was a distinctive gold-plated version of its Quiet de Luxe model, costing $174. Casino Royale is by far his best James Bond book. If you plan to read a James Bond book, read Royale, because Bond is vulnerable and genuinely falls in love.

14. Fleming's Writing Routine Described in Playboy Magazine

His writing habits sounded manageable as he described them in the 1964 Playboy article. His routine consisted of writing on an average of 2000 words a day.

The majority of his writing occurred at 10 a.m. after a swim in the ocean, breakfast, and leisure time in the garden.

He wrote without stopping or looking over what he wrote. If he made a mistake, he would fix it when the book finished.

He spent the afternoon lounging with his wife, have a few drinks, takes a nap, and eat dinner. When the sun went down, it was dark, he pounded out 500 more words, placing his seven pages neatly in a folder.

15. Second Novel Arrived in the Bookstores in 1954

Fleming’s second novel Live and Let Die arrived in bookstores 5 April 1954. The story involves exotic locations in Jamaican similar to the sixth novel he wrote and hit the bookstores in 1957 called Dr. No.

16. Famous People Visited Goldeneye

Goldeneye honored famous visitors, including Noel Coward, Anthony Eden, Cecil Beaton, Truman Capote, Errol Flynn, Evelyn Waugh, and Lucian Freud.

17. Goldeneye Is Owned by Former Film Locations Manager

The villa changed ownership a couple of times and is currently owned and managed by Island Outpost, owned by Chris Blackwell, former movie locations manager and owner of Records. People come, and vacation at Goldeneye promoted as a secluded location with sufficient privacy.

18. Who Produced the First James Bond Movie?

The first movie of the 007 films is Dr. No, produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R Broccoli based on Fleming’s sixth novel, starring Sean Connery.

Strolling on the Jamaican beach, Cubby Broccoli and Harry Saltzman are deep in conversation about producing.
Strolling on the Jamaican beach, Cubby Broccoli and Harry Saltzman are deep in conversation about producing.

19. Who Directed "Dr. No?"

Terence Young directed Dr. No and From Russia With Love, the first two James Bond movies. The last Bond movie he directed was Thunderball.

Terence Young positioned under the camera directing Sean Connery, Kitzmiller, Ursula Andress on location in Jamaica.
Terence Young positioned under the camera directing Sean Connery, Kitzmiller, Ursula Andress on location in Jamaica.

20. Jamaica Movie Location

Because of Fleming's second two novels used locations in Jamaica, when the movies went into production, they shot both at various locations in Jamaica.

21. How Many Jamaicans Worked on "Dr. No?"

The first Bond movie hired roughly 500 local Jamaican actors and crew. The Jamaican government supported the production from beginning to end.

Marguerite LeWars plays the photographer and fails to catch Bond on film.
Marguerite LeWars plays the photographer and fails to catch Bond on film.

22. "Dr. No" Went into Production

Dr. No went into production, and the first day of filming started on the topic island under a production budget of $1 million. Reggie Carter, one of Jamaica’s leading theatre actors, played the maleficent chauffeur, and Miss Jamaica 1961 Marguerite LeWars played the Freelance Photographer.

23. Blackwell Represented Bob Marley

Fleming’s neighbor and friend Chris Blackwell became the location manager for all the Jamaican locations filmed for the movie. From his earnings, Blackwell founded Island Records. The record production company that presented to the reggae using artists including Bob Marley.

Chris Blackwell, as the location manager for "Dr. No," listens to Terence Young.
Chris Blackwell, as the location manager for "Dr. No," listens to Terence Young.

24. Noel Coward Offered the Role of Dr. No

Producers Cubby Broccoli and Harry Saltzman wanted Noel Coward to play Dr. No, but when Fleming cabled his Jamaican neighbor with the offer, Coward responded, “…No…No…No! Thank you. Love, Noel.”

25. Ursula Andress White Bkini Scene

Costume designer for Dr. No was Tessa Prendergast, who is Jamaican actress Tessa Welborn, the fashion designer. She oversaw the costume designs for Dr. No. She assisted in creating the famous white bikini worn by Ursula Andress when she surfaces from the ocean. She won a Golden Globe for her role.

Ursula Andress is the most famous bond girl in her white bikini for "Dr. No."
Ursula Andress is the most famous bond girl in her white bikini for "Dr. No."

26. Sean Connery Resided at Courleigh Manor Hotel

Sean Connery, stunt coordinator Bob Simmons, and Terence Young arrived on the island a week before the first day of filming. They booked rooms at the Courtleigh Manor Hotel. The remainder of the cast and crew arrived on 14 January.

27. Monty Norman Used Local Bands as Part of the Movie's Music

The movie's music composer, Monty Norman, blended the Jamaica vibe into the movie's score by working with Chris Blackwell, the locations manager. He presented Norman some local flavor, Byron Lee and the Dragonaires. The band appears in Pussfella’s bar scene. They play "Jump Up" to a bar full of island extras as Connery, who plays Bond, John Kitzmiller, who plays Quarrel, and Jack Lord, who plays Leiter, meet to consult the disappearance of Strangways.

28. Norman's Wife Sings "Under the Mango Tree"

The band included Jamaican jazz guitarist, Ernest Ranglin, who backed Norman’s wife, Diana Coupland singing ‘Under the Mango Tree’ in Dr. No.

29. Bunny Yeager Photographed Andress

Bunny Yeager, a former pin-up model, and American glamour photographer came on location to shoot promotional photos of Ursula Andress. In 1966, Yeager issued her book ‘Camera in Jamaica,’ which includes several photos taken when she worked on location during the filming of Dr. No.

Honey Ryder and 007 are looking down at the beach in Jamaica.
Honey Ryder and 007 are looking down at the beach in Jamaica.

30. The First Time Ian Fleming Came on a Bond Set

During the shooting of famous Andress, as Honey Ryder walking out of the ocean in a white bikini on the island, director Terence Young recalled working on the scene, he saw some folks walking down the beach, ruining the shot. He screamed, "Lie down!" They laid down, and the film crew shot the iconic scene. It turned out to be Ian Fleming with his friends, Stephen Spender, Noel Coward, and Peter Cornell. It went down as the first time Fleming came on a Bond set.

31. "Dr. No" Final Location Shot in Jamaica

February 21, 1962, the final day of filming on location in Jamaica occurred on the property of the Sans Souci Hotel, which the exterior part became Miss Taro’s house.

Quarrel, Bond, and Honey are getting away from Dr. No’s guards.
Quarrel, Bond, and Honey are getting away from Dr. No’s guards.

32. Who directed "Live and Let Die?"

Live and Let Die was Guy Hamilton's third Bond movie. He directed Goldfinger and Diamonds Are Forever before he took on Live and Let Die. His final Bond movie was The Man with the Golden Gun.

33. Did Sean Connery star in "Live and Let Die"

Roger Moore played James Bond in Live and Let Die. It was his first Bond movie.

34. San Monique Became the Fictional Name Island of Jamaica

November 14, 1972, registered the first day of filming of Live and Let Die on location in Jamaica. The filming occurred on the coast a short distance past Reynolds Aluminium on the road of Ocho Rios towards St. Anne’s Bay. The next location of that day was the interior and exterior shots of Hotel Reception and Tarot Card Shop using the Sans Souci Hotel, Ocho Rios.

On a crocodile farm, Bond, now played by Roger Moore, discovers that signs sometimes express what they say!
On a crocodile farm, Bond, now played by Roger Moore, discovers that signs sometimes express what they say!

35. "Trespassers Will Be Eaten"

Syd Cain scouted locations on the island and came across "Trespassers Will Be Eaten." His interest aroused, he took a tour of Kananga's Swamp Safari with its owner. The location became part of the movie with scenes added to the script, changing the name to "Jakata."

36. Stunt Double in Crocodile Scene

The owner of the swamp, Ross Kananga, joined the movie crew as Bond's body double for the crocodile stepping stone scene. He had to run over the backs of real crocodiles lined up for the shot.

On the third try, a crocodile whipped around and bit off the heel of his shoe. Ross concluded, "They’re expecting me."

Guy Hamilton told Ross it was too dangerous to continue, but Ross wanted to get the shot. They tried again and got it.

"Live and Let Die" on the film set Roger Moore seated on the top deck, on Sunday, December 10, 1972.
"Live and Let Die" on the film set Roger Moore seated on the top deck, on Sunday, December 10, 1972.

37. The Double-Decker Bus Chase Scene

The double-decker bus chase scene required a bus converted to make the stunt happen without difficulties. The production built the bus in London, shipping it to a location in Johnson Town, Lucea, on the island.

Bond drove the bus beneath a low-lying bridge, using a sliding mechanism to enable the top deck a clean slice off when the bus hits the bridge.

Not only was the bus customized made, but so was the bridge. Syd Cain devised it, and Leon Davis oversaw the installation of the complete steel framework. All went well in the first take, and the effects looked both humorous and magnificent.

38. The Bus Driver Rehearsed for Six Weeks

Maurice Patchett, who is a bus instructor, drove the double-decker bus in the chase sequence practiced in Jamaica for six weeks before shooting the stunt.

39. "Live and Let Die" Last Day in Jamaica

The last day of filming in Jamaica was December 27, 1972, at the Jamaica Swamp Safari, Falmouth with Ross Kananga.

40. Which Studio Produced the James Bond Movies?

All of the James Bond films were produced with the collaboration of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios or United Artists, its forerunner.

43. San Monique in "Live and Let Die" is Fictional

Jamaica as Live and Let Die filming location for the fictional San Monique island was not a shoo-in. Director Hamilton, Art Director Syd Cain, and Production Manager Claude Hudson used three weeks of scouting various locations in the Caribbean before settling on Fleming's homestead island.

44. Bond's First Interacial Romance

On November 15, 1972, Roger Moore and Rosie Carver, as Gloria Hendry, perform their first romantic kiss at the picnic scene in a clearing located at Ruins, Ocho Rios. The scene marks the first interracial affair in a Bond movie.

45. Dereking Meddings Created Scarecrow Mannequins

Derek Meddings recognized for his miniature work on Fireball XL5, Thunderbirds, and Stingray. Live And Let Die recorded as his first attempt on Bond movies. Meddings and Peter Briggs designed the scarecrow mannequins that frighten Rosie in the romantic scene with Bond.

46. Jaws

Richard Kiel played Jaws, and only wore his metal teeth for 30 seconds for each scene. The Pyramids scene in The Spy Who Loved Me, where he bites through the chain, was designed out of licorice.

47. How Many Actors Played James Bonds?

Which 007 is your favorite? Seven handsome actors played James Bond, including David Niven, Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Pierce Brosnan, Timothy Dalton, and Daniel Craig.

48. How Tall is James Bond?

Daniel Craig is the shortest James Bond to date, standing at 5'10". The other Bonds reached 6’1” to 6’2”.

49. James Bond Women

Bond has been intimate with over four dozen women on screen with over 75 Bond Girls, and two-thirds of those lovers attempted to kill him. Ursula Andress was the first Bond Girl, creating a high standard for her successors.

50. James Bond is Scottish

When James Bond was 11 years old, his parents were killed in a mountain climbing accident. His father was Scottish and his mother Swiss mother.

51. How Times Has 007 Been Shot At?

After being shot at roughly 5,000 times as an agent for his Majesty's Secret Service, Bond keeps on saving the world.

52. Moore Needed Running Double

Roger Moore required a body double to run for all of his movies because unsure of his awkward run.

53. James Bond Vodka

James Bond’s drink of preference is a martini with vodka shaken not stirred. The favorite drink contains 130 calories, just enough to burn during a romantic tumble.

54. Weapons Training

During the filming of Skyfall, the cast and crew hired 200,000 rounds of ammunition just while performing weapons training.

55. Smoking in the Movies

James Bond smokes a cigarette in almost every scene, recorded to have light up 70 cigarettes a day, painfully 3.5 packs a day. Bond stopped smoking in front of the camera after Die Another Day, though he smoked a cigar. Daniel Craig hasn't lit up yet on camera.

56. James Bond MI16

The actuality of MI6, the agency 007 works for in the movies, was formally recognized by the British government in 1994.

The first James Bond car, Sunbeam Alpine, is driven by Connery while being chased by The Three Blind Mice.
The first James Bond car, Sunbeam Alpine, is driven by Connery while being chased by The Three Blind Mice.

57. James Bond Car

Pierce Brosnan starred as 007 in Tomorrow Never Dies, where he destroyed more than 15 BMWs

58. James Bond Card Game

Ian Fleming wrote in his books that James Bond enjoys a good card game of baccarat. We see him playing the game in On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Dr. No, Thunderball, Goldeneye, and Never Say Never Again.

59. How Many Books Mention 007?

The 007 appeared in 25 additional authorized books, delivering a total of being written in 39 books if you include Ian Fleming's 14 books.

60. What Type of Gun Did Bond Use?

In the first five books, Bond used a Beretta 418. The sixth book, Nr. No, Fleming changed his gun to a Walther PPK. The shift occurred after Fleming corresponded with a fan who was a veteran and gun collecter. He advised Fleming to have Bond use the latter gun speed and accuracy.

61. James Bond Villains

The villains in Fleming's books is what makes the stories so much fun to read and see on the big screen. Each villain is over the top entertainment and uniquely wicked, including Le Chiffre, Mr. Big, Sir Hugo Drax, Dr. Julius No, Auric Goldfinger, and Herr von Hammerstein.

62. Die Another Day

Starting with the first movie, Dr. No to Quantum of Solace, 007 killed 352 people in the films.

63. Discovery of Sean Connery

Producer Cubby Broccoli saw Sean Connery in Darby O’Gill and the Little People and wanted to test his appeal to women and took his wife to the movie. and she became impressed.

64. Aston-Martin and Gadgets

The first Bond film to feature gadgets and having him drive an Aston-Martin was Goldfinger. The movie was the first film ever to use a laser beam.

65. Opening Credits Figure

The figure in the opening credits where the gun barrel opens is Stuntman Bob Simmons. He played the iconic part in the first three movies.

"No Time to Die" is the 25th 007 movie starring Daniel Craig and Léa Seydoux as the Bond Girl. They arrive in Matera, Italy, filming on location with director Cary Joji Fukunaga.
"No Time to Die" is the 25th 007 movie starring Daniel Craig and Léa Seydoux as the Bond Girl. They arrive in Matera, Italy, filming on location with director Cary Joji Fukunaga. | Source
Images, details, and videos are courtesy of MGM. 

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Kenna McHugh

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • Kenna McHugh profile imageAUTHOR

        Kenna McHugh 

        7 days ago from Northern California

        Jamie,

        Thank you for the comments. I grew up with the 007 movies as well, and they were never a disappointment.

      • profile image

        Jamie 

        7 days ago

        Your article is full of information about the Bond movies, and I thoroughly enjoyed the images, too. I grew up going to Bond movies, they never let me down.

      • Kenna McHugh profile imageAUTHOR

        Kenna McHugh 

        2 weeks ago from Northern California

        Linda, I found the research interesting, and MGM Studios helped a lot.

      • AliciaC profile image

        Linda Crampton 

        2 weeks ago from British Columbia, Canada

        This is a very interesting article. Thanks for all the work that you did to create it, Kenna.

      • Kenna McHugh profile imageAUTHOR

        Kenna McHugh 

        2 weeks ago from Northern California

        The timeline between each movie after the 80s is crazy. The earlier ones weren't so bad. They were a year apart.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 weeks ago from UK

        This is a fascinating fact file. When my son was in need of a title for an English presentation, I suggested he discuss the enduring popularity of James Bond. He scored well with it. That was 15 years ago and James Bond is still going strong. I just get a little frustrated with the long wait between films.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, reelrundown.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://reelrundown.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)