Your Survival Guide to Working on a Hollywood Movie Set

Updated on December 20, 2017
jasonponic profile image

Jason Ponic works in the exciting world of Hollywood film and television by day and writes by night.

IMDb | Source

Breaking into the film industry.

While browsing on Hubpages, I've noticed that there are dozens upon dozens of hubs on the topic of Independent Film, Short Film and even Music Videos but there is little, if not nothing, on the bigger, more lucrative film industry, Hollywood.

As a resident of Albuquerque, New Mexico, there have been dozens of hollywood movies that have filmed in the state. I have been fortunate enough to be a part of several, including 2 Guns, The Lone Ranger, Longmire, and Breaking Bad.

There is no written rule book for working on set rather there is a complex unwritten doctrine that is rigorously followed. School will rarely prepare you for what may happen. In fact, most of what you learn in a basic film course will do little to none to prepare you for set. Worried? You should be.

Based on my own experiences, I've decided to create a guide for those who's biggest dream is to work on a big budget film. These tips will not only prepare you for the highly competitive world of Hollywood but if followed correctly, will leave a good impression on the producers to call you back for future productions!

The Reality of a Hollywood Set

A Hollywood Film Set is a money fueled freight train, charging full steam ahead while the crew perilously runs alongside laying down the tracks, digging tunnels and clearing forests. Nobody has the ability to stop the train safely but everyone has the power to derail it catastrophically. Tempers flare out of control, stress is rampant, and nobody wants to hear those words, "You fucked up!"

At any moment the train could claim a victim. You loose focus for one minute and the career consequences can be fatal. Too slow and you are left in the dust. Too soft and the train will run you down. Aggression, focus, proaction and professionalism are your keys to success on a big budget film.

Questions to ask yourself when considering a career in filmmaking:

Are you prepared to work seven days a week?

Are you prepared to work at least twelve hours per day?

Are you prepared to work all night? For example, 5PM to 5AM?

Are you comfortable taking orders from someone younger than you?

If you answered 'no' to any of the questions above, you may want to consider a different career.

What is a Production Assistant?

The Production Assistant is the infamous bottom rung of the entire film industry. PA's bear the brunt of all jokes, anger, and hatred. Often portrayed by media as the glorified coffee runner, hazed at every turn, fired after making a mistake, and worked to the point of death. They are the pledge class of the set.

In reality, a production assistant plays a key roll in the efficient and successful running of a film production. Without them, a film set simply could not function.

Types of Production Assistants

There is no one overarching, all encompassing, position call a Production Assistant. In fact, the title is given to dozens of individuals throughout the production, hierarchy is established based on experience.

Key PA - Production Assistant with the most experience and the one who generally supervises and delegates all other production assistants under them. Responsible for relaying directions from the from the AD's. Note: Not all productions will use key PAs.

Staff PA - Staff PAs AKA Set PAs are hired for the entire duration of filming through the Assistant Director Department. Often charged with a specific task or duty during production.

Additional PA - Also known as a 'Day Player', these individuals are hired on a day-by-day, as needed basis. Their duties are restricted to very basic tasks, such as road lockups or extras wrangling. Additionals can be hired through any department.

Department PA - Individuals hired for the individual departments within a production.

Office PA - Production Assistants hired to work in the production office. Duties include running lunch, office supplies, mail and/or secretarial work.

RULE #1: Be prepared to drop everything, any plans, work, school, church or trips if you get the call to work on a big film.

Any hesitation will cost you your chance. The odds are in the house's favor, not yours. Any hesitation and the production will immediately move on to the next person on the list.

Wrong Answers:

  • "I have to check with my [wife, work, schedule]..."
  • "Can I get back to you?"
  • "What will I be paid?"
  • "How long will it be for?"
  • "OMG! Really!?"

RIght Answers:

  • "Yes I can."

Members of the Hollywood film industry will often remark that film is their religion and stress is their spouse. That isn't much of an exaggeration. For big budget films, sundays are often the busiest days of the shooting schedule, especially when the production falls behind schedule. While some productions may accommodate religious requirements once you're established, as a no-name rookie, your chances are slim to none.

Clear your schedule, completely. There are no part time filmmakers. If you get the call to work on a picture, you must be fully prepared to commit days, even weeks on end. Say you're asked if you are free on August 1st to work. What they are not telling you that you may also be working August 2nd, 3rd, and so on.

My job interview to work on The Lone Ranger consisted of a text message from the Key Set PA.

KEY SET PA: You free to work tomorrow on Lone Ranger?
ME: Yes I am.
KEY SET PA: Ok putting you on hold.
ME: 10-4.


KEY SET PA: Set is on XX west exit XXX you make a right at the gas station up the dirt road to Crew Parking. 6:00AM Call.
ME: 10-4.

And with that, I was hired onto Lone Ranger.

RULE #2 Be prepared to work as a PA. Hard.

The workload is predictably overwhelming. You may find yourself working seven days a week at 12-18 hours a day, often for weeks on end. Burnout is very high, and is usually compounded by the family problems the job causes. Divorce and breakups are commonplace.

Feature films shoot six days a week for an average of 14 hours per day. There are few if not any breaks during the day. For those working in any of the production departments, if you are a greenhorn or have worked less than 300 hours on a union feature film set, then your job will be a production assistant. That is an unavoidable reality and every member of the union crew has had to do it.

Tips Every Person Should Remember:

  1. Remembering Everyone and Everything: This will make you or break you. Asking people multiple times for their names is insulting and in some cases career inhibitive. You must be ready to remember everyone's name the first time you hear it, know which position they are and where you can find them. Several members of the crew had the same name and it is your job to know who is who. TIP: When a person introduces themselves, immediately look them up on your call sheet. It will help in the memorization process.
  2. Understanding the Radio: The radio is a never ending blurb of chaos silent only when the cameras roll. You must have a good ear and always be listening for when your name is called. In my case, it was exceptionally difficult as the department 'Location' often sounded like my name 'Jason' over the radio static. Never answer a radio call that is not yours. Productions will often use multiple channels: Example: Channel 2 for Calling, Channel 5 for Long Conversations.
  3. Be Aggressive: A PA is a lightening rod for hate and frustration. Many department personnel have their own agenda and will push past you regardless if there is a lockdown in progress or not. Your job is to protect people from themselves and be that repetitive voice that tells everyone to stay back. It is very taxing but you cannot stop.
  4. No Egos: A PA is at the bottom of the totem pole and nothing more than a walking eggshell. Regardless of how much independent film you've done or how old you are, your job is to do those jobs nobody else wants to do. It doesn't matter if you are a military veteran or a high school student, if your ego cannot handle being at the bottom, getting yelled at, or ordered around then you have no business being on a film set. Period.
  5. Thick Skin: You will be yelled at, everyone will. It is a fact of life. Especially when the production starts experiencing problems or if you are not doing something you are supposed to. Take nothing anyone says personally. At the end of the day, everything is water under the bridge. Holding a grudge against someone because they yelled at you, will only hurt you, not them. Never shot
  6. Operating out of your Comfort Zone: If you have difficulty multi-tasking, hate surprises, or cannot think in the moment, then Hollywood probably isn't for you. One moment you could be sitting at a road lock up doing nothing, ten minutes later you could be thrown the keys to a rental car and ordered to pick someone up from the hotel or airport. Which hotel? It's up to you to find out. How? Ask lots of questions.

Rule #3: Distance Matters Not

One way to gain the respect of the crew, is to demonstrate that you are willing to go to great lengths, and distances, to work in the film industry. The final week of my extent on the Lone Ranger took place in Los Alamos, New Mexico, a full two hours drive from where I live in Albuquerque. For crew members that are hired on a day-to-day basis, you are rarely compensated for any costs that may be incurred, such as gas, mileage, food and lodging.

"Hi Jason, I was wondering if you'd like to work on Lone Ranger this week. Now before you say yes, we are shooting in Los Alamos. Call is at 5:30AM so you will need to leave Albuquerque at 3:30AM. You will not be compensated for gas, lodging, or mileage. Would you still like to come?

I will be there.

Thank you so much!

50 MPH gusts with severe sandstorm warnings.
50 MPH gusts with severe sandstorm warnings.

Working Conditions

As with every movie production, you really don't know what to expect until you arrive on set for your first day. But you should prepare for the worst kind possible. I'm talking about standing in the same spot for eighteen hours straight, without any break, dying under the beating hot sun while getting blasted unmercifully by an unforgiving sandstorm while still trying to radio, do your job and without getting yelled at. Think I'm exaggerating? Just ask any member of the Long Ranger production staff.

The week of May 21-25 was a Dust Bowl. With gusts up to seventy MPH at times, the dust in the air blinded everyone and got everywhere. At times, my vision was reduced to just a few feet in front of me. Sand ripped into my sunburnt skin causing it to bleed in some places. It got into my ears, my eyes, my lungs, my mouth. It's such a wonderful crunching sound when you rub your teeth together. Filming was shut down a number of times as we waited for the wind to pause just for a few precious seconds.

The week of August 1-4 in Los Alamos was a nice change in scenery. As many of the full time crew remarked, it was the first location of the entire show to have shade! Not to mention a comfortable temperature and breathtaking scenery.

Yep. Sand in the wallet.
Yep. Sand in the wallet.

Duties of a Set PA

  1. Runner: The myth is true. Running coffee and food is the number one job of any production assistant. Each morning, the actors will give out their breakfast orders. Make sure you get exactly what you were asked to get. Don't ask useless questions, and do not complain.
  2. Lock Downs: When the set locks down, usually for filming or crew breaks, nobody and I mean nobody, is allowed in or out. If you boss (Key Set PA or AD) says, "Lock it down." you, under penalty of termination, cannot allow anybody past the lockdown point. It does not matter who they may claim to be or what title they try to force down your throat. A lock down is a lock down.
  3. Flushing/Bleeding: Always ask, 'Who?' 'What?' 'When?' 'Where?' and 'Why?' Herding or 'Flushing' as its called on set, of people and vehicles is a never ending grind. 90% of your time will be directing an endless caravan of people or vehicles whose passengers range from the executive producer to the extras. You need to be vigilant and know exactly who is in each of the vehicles at all times. Only if they are crucial to the scene, then they are given priority on a traffic flush, if not, then they must wait.
  4. Emergency Vehicles: As per strict Osha, union and insurance requirements, all emergency vehicles must be free of obstructions at all times on set. Department personal continuously park in front of emergency vehicles and it is your job to always insure that a path is open.
  5. Call Sheets/Sides/DOODs: A never ending task of a PA is to pass out call sheets to the crew for the next day's shoot. Sides are generally distributed at the beginning of each day. Day-Out-Of-Days or DOODs are passed out when required.

LADY: "I have a 3:00 PM flight to LA I cannot miss."
ME: I'm sorry but we are Locked Down.
LADY: "Do you have any idea who I am? I am a representative of the DGA and I cannot miss this flight."
ME: "I'm sorry, it's a Lock Down. AD's orders."
LADY: "@$#$*"!!

Best Ways to Get Hired.

By now, you are probably asking, "Well how do I get hired?" The answer is rather complex. There is no official way to get hired onto a production. 9 out of 10 times, it is because you already know somebody who works in the film industry who can recommend you to a production coordinator. Occasionally you'll get lucky and find a posting for a basic PA job on Craiglist or a film forum but those are rare. Here are the most common and most effective ways to break into the film industry.

  • Get to know someone who already works in the industry. There is a big difference between getting to know someone and simply asking the first person you see. Members of the industry are literally bombarded daily with requests, and in some cases, demands for work and jobs. Like the junk mail in your email, those requests are ignored. Taking the time to get to know someone first shows them that you are willing to make a respectful effort and, most importantly, show you are willing to be as patient as possible.
  • Working in the Production Office. On set, it can be very difficult to network, especially since everyone is busy, there are problems, or people are too tired to remember. The production office, while not the most glamourous job, is an easier opportunity to network. Office PA jobs are also easier to obtain. The responsibility is much higher, as is the stress and chances of making a career threatening mistake. The trade off is you are working directly with the Production Coordinators whom are responsible for most of the production's hiring and may even work directly with the film's producers. You are constantly interacting with people from multiple departments and even other productions if you are working in a studio environment.

How long does it take to break in?

Simply because someone works a day or two on a big film does not necessarily mean your establishment in the industry. An individual would work a day on The Lone Ranger and then not be called back, either until months later or not at all.

Some of the most common reasons you were not called back

  • You didn't connect with enough people. If you are not on salary, numbers and contact information are rarely passed on. The individual who hired you could leave the picture for a better offer and your number will quite literally leave with them.
  • You assumed instead of asking questions. Repeatedly assuming answers instead of asking for the correct one will get you fired faster than any other mistake or behavior. For example, say your boss, the APOC (Assistant Production Coordinator), asks you to deliver an important document, usually a check or memo that requires a signature, to a specific individual on set. You arrive and find that said individual is busy with a shot or is otherwise unavailable. Another individual approaches you and says "I'll sign for him" and you say "Ok". That seemingly innocent gesture could, under the right circumstances, just got you fired. This is because you assumed that the document would reach its target person instead of asking for further instruction from your boss.
  • You were not aggressive enough or failed to make a good impression. There is a fine line between being aggressive and being egotistical. The crew has a very tough skin and can handle just about anything that someone says. But you can still offend someone if you complain, attack someone personally, use profanity or slurs. Professionalism is your key to a good impression.
  • Wrong Attitude on Set. A film set is hard and chaotic enough, especially when the sixteenth or seventeenth hour rolls by. The last thing the crew needs is a self absorbed individual who complains for any reason. "I'm bored" "I don't feel my skills are used properly" are death phrases on set and will win no sympathy from the crew. Silence, Obedience and Patience will win respect not Complaining, Attitude, or Arrogance.
  • You made a serious 'harmless' mistake. There is no job training for a film set. Film School will do little to train you in basic jobs than are more likely to get you fired. A harmless mistake such as accidentally filing papers incorrectly, getting lost while running an errand or forgetting double checking a lunch order before delivering it can cost you your job in the right circumstances.

Expect no real progress for at least several years and your establishment is entirely on your shoulders. Unlike a traditional job where once a year you are up for review, promotion and advancement, in film some advance in three months, others take three years or more. Even union workers are not guaranteed permanent establishment.

Terminology of the Set

Just like in a restaurant, jargon has been coined that every member of the production team uses. Knowing the most common slang ahead of time can greatly reduce the confusion you may experience on set.

  • Hot Brick: A charged radio battery. Everyone should have at least two extra batteries with them at all times. If someone asks you "Do you have a hot brick?" You best have one.
  • Landed: Arriving on set. This term is used to describe things that have arrived at the immediate filming location.
  • Flushing or Bleeding: Transporting people or equipment across an active film set.
  • French Hours: No meal breaks! Food is passed out on set and people stuff it down whenever they can, where ever they can.
  • Honeywagon: Toilets. This one's important!
  • Gator: ATVs used on set for any purpose. Despised for always getting in the way of shots or ruining photo terrain.
  • Honeybadger: The tiny cart that contains all the batteries needed for the set. You'd be surprised how often this thing gets lost.
  • Ten-O-One: "I need to use the toilet."
  • Football: The accordion folder that contains all important paperwork at the end of each shooting day. Files included in the football are: Schedule G, Daily/Weekly Time Cards, Catering Receipts, Production Reports, Script Reports, Camera Reports, Lost/Damaged Equipment Forms and Injury Claims.

Paid or Unpaid?

Unpaid postions exist on all levels of production, from low-budget to blockbuster and can be equally as valuable as a paid job. The reality is that there are far more unpaid opportunities than paid opportunities for a beginning production assistant. The rule of thumb is never turn down an opportunity when you are starting out, regardless if it's a paying job or not. Of course, one has to evaluate their financial situation when considering an unpaid position. Some unpaid positons can last for weeks, even months and are rarely part time. Union hours can still be earned on an unpaid job if the production is union accredited.

Building Your Set Kit

A set kit is an essential part of any staff set PA. While the exact contents of which vary from person to person, having a kit on set is a crucial part of making your job easier especially during those hell days where you have little time to think. Most set kits are created at personal cost. Some completed kits can be passed down from those who no longer need them such as PAs who have finally gone DGA.

A football style set box.
A football style set box.

The Set Box. A simple accordion style football which contains the most-frequently-asked-for paperwork of a production. There is no requirement as to exactly what is inside but forms that you should consider including in your set box are:

  • The Script
  • Script Revisions
  • Timecards
  • One Line Schedule
  • Day-out-of-Days or DOODs
  • Photo Releases
  • Crew Lists
  • Start Work
  • Extras Vouchers
  • Extras Breakdowns
  • Daily Time Sheets
  • Incident Reports
  • Loss & Damage Reports
  • Workman's Comp Forms
  • Box Rental Forms
  • Petty Cash Envelopes
  • SAG Forms


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image


      11 months ago

      I will do anything and and work to the top

    • profile image


      11 months ago

      Thanks a lot! Very helpful!

    • profile image


      16 months ago

      HeinrichBuys If I was to do it over again, I wouldnt got to film school. Id go to LA or other cities where shows/films are shot as soon as I hit 18 years old. I did this at age 23 and i easily got hired as a PA by getting on sets through being an extra. DUring free time I walked around set and had polite conversations with any crew and catering. FInally a catering guy I had a nice conversation with introduced me to a PA and I had business cards ready. You will learn a lot on set by working hard, and having curious polite conversations with the different crew when they aren't very busy. Don't approach a film career if you aren't sure what your focus is. EIther know what u want to commit to or do something else. Lots of people go into the film industry not sure what they want and then they are stuck being good at a position they aren't all that fascinated by.

    • profile image


      19 months ago

      Wow. This seems so involved it’s like boot camp.

    • profile image


      23 months ago

      Hi Jason !

      Im tryna decide what to study and film was always my dream. The problem is Ive heard a lot of people say to not study film, just start directly after school with for example a PA on any set, get experience and take it from there. I also live in South Africa, a country where film is only starting to really take off.

      What would you say would be the best thing to do. Study something in line of film ? Also should I rather try America for example rather than SA where film is still very young.

      Im almost 18, if you wondered.

      Thanks for your time, Heinrich

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      23 months ago from Albuquerque

      Move to a state that has active film production and start networking. It's not easy, but the only way.

    • profile image


      23 months ago

      Hi Jason!

      Thank you very much for this article. Do you have any advice on what a 19 year old college student in Boston should do if school isn't for him and he really wants to find work on a set and start working?

      Thanks again.

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      24 months ago from Albuquerque


    • profile image

      Brandon Payne 

      24 months ago

      I thought there were laws against working more than 18 hours a day

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      2 years ago from Albuquerque

      Depends on the region. I've heard 10-0-1, 10-1 or 10-100

    • profile image


      2 years ago

      "I'm going to the bathroom" is actually '10-100', most often shortened to '10-1'.

    • profile image

      Faith Toledo 

      3 years ago

      Very informative, thank you so much for sharing your knowledge. Really makes you think, if this is the career you want to pursue or not. I will like to know your thoughts on being starstruck.

    • profile image

      Brandice Lawson 

      4 years ago

      Well done! I would add, don't get caught standing together with other PAs, sitting or reading on set, unless it's a call sheet or sides. Rookie mistakes are easy to make when you're green so being observant and staying in your lane is the best thing to do starting out. Also, always be on your game. You never know who people are or the power they have. If you worked on Longmire, we know a lot of the same people. Mike Robin is one of the best people to work for in this business and he notices everything. He's extremely talented, knowledgeable, appreciates hard work... And he expects it.

    • profile image

      drasko movie director from Europe 

      5 years ago

      Very good text,realistic.My close fiend is Bojan, DP of Lone Ranger.In my country I work with actors from Holywood,they are very pro,and we work here not too hard,because we are not Holywood INDUSTRY.No school for this,I am graduated at Film Academy,but you must work on set among filmcrew. Thanks

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      5 years ago from Albuquerque

      Networking, that's your key to breaking in.

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      It's my dream wish I work in Hollywood

    • profile image

      aryan hasan 

      5 years ago

      Hi sir

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      5 years ago from Albuquerque

      The best advise I can give is be prepared to travel to the work, even if its on your own dime.

    • Rachel Perez profile image

      Rachel Perez 

      5 years ago

      I was wondering if you had any advice for a college student looking to get in a career in film.

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      i am an indian and i am very poor no money but i really want to work in hollywood and i am ready to do any hard work under any circumstances please any one help me...this is my humble request please

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      6 years ago from Albuquerque

      I quite agree.

    • profile image

      James Mendes. 

      7 years ago

      Where there is hardship there is hard work and a fruit of success.

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      7 years ago from Albuquerque

      Joe Southern, I would be happy to! Thank you for your offer! I'll be able to talk about it after the film's release.

    • Joe Southern profile image

      Joe Southern 

      7 years ago from Rosenberg, Texas

      I know you can't say anything now, but when you are free I would love to interview you about your experience on the Lone Ranger set for the Lone Ranger Fan Club.

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      7 years ago from Albuquerque

      Movie sets are exciting to work on. In a way the set terminology is like learning a new language.

    • ChristyWrites profile image

      Christy Birmingham 

      7 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Well explained here, I like the part where you explain the set terminology.

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      7 years ago from Albuquerque


    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Very Accurate! Hard work but it can also be fun!

    • jasonponic profile imageAUTHOR

      Jason Ponic 

      7 years ago from Albuquerque

      Thank you! My next lens just might be that topic!

    • Ask Ashley profile image

      Ask Ashley 

      7 years ago from California

      Interesting. Is your next hub going to be on how to get on that production list? Voted up.

      And welcome to Hubpages. I see you've wasted no time. You already have more hubs than me!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)