What do "Best Boy" and "Dolly Grip" mean? Plus, Other Odd Film Terms
What the hell is a "Best Boy"?
Have you ever watched the latest Blockbuster Film, and then whilst perusing the closing credits rolling up the screen at the end of the show, been amazed not only at the sheer numbers of personnel required to get the production onto the screen, but also by the sheer strangeness of some of the job titles?;
- Key Grip
- Dolly Grip
- Best Boy
- Clapper Loader
- Focus Puller
Best Boy? Key Grip? What the hell does that mean? - Well be puzzled no longer; Read on and all will be explained.
Key Grip and Dolly Grip
A "Key Grip" is the guy who is in charge of the Grips - The Numero Uno of the Grip world. WHOA! I can hear you scream - What the hell are these "Grips" that this guy is in charge of. Well, they are (sort of) the film worlds equivalent of the theatre's "Stage Hands".
In America and Canada they will consist of both Lighting and Rigging technicians, but in the UK and Europe they will not be involved in the Lighting aspect of the shoot and will concentrate on Camera mountings and support.
The variety of camera mountings used in the motion picture industry is staggering; from simple tripods, through cranes and jibs, vehicle mounts on cars or aircraft, body mounts, cable systems - you name it - they use it!.
Some grips even specialise in only one particular aspect of their trade. A "Dolly Grip" for example will specialise in Camera Dollies. A "camera dolly" is a sort of low truck usually with four wheels on which is mounted the camera (and often a cameraman plus 1st AC). Sometimes, if the ground is uneven, the dolly is mounted on a small track system (like a railway track), which will allow the camera to smoothly follow actors whilst they move (Hence "Tracking shot")
It is said that the term "Grip" dates from the days of silent movies when cameras were Hand-cranked. The cranking action would make the camera wobble, and so the camera operator would call for anyone with a "good grip" to grab the camera tripod legs and physically steady the camera - They were eventually nicknamed the "good grips" which later became just "Grips"
Best Boy and Gaffer
"Best Boy" is probably the one of the most puzzling job titles for anyone not in the film industry. So, what does "Best Boy" actually mean? Well, Best boys come in two flavours: "Best Boy Electric(Lighting)" and "Best Boy Grips". They are chief assistants to their respective bosses, and are largely responsible for the efficient running of their departments and answerable to their respective bosses. In the case of the Best Boy (Electric) this will be the "Gaffer" (who is the chief Lighting Electrician), whilst Best Boy (Grips) answers to the Key Grip.
The term "Best Boy" is actually older than the film industry and hails from the days of the old British Apprentice system. When, in the old days, one Craft Master asked another if he could borrow his "Best Boy" for some task or other, he was asking for his oldest most experienced and skillful apprentice - His most senior assistant in other words.
The Clapper Loader (sometimes called "Second Assistant Camera" or "2nd AC") has responsibility for the loading of the raw film into the camera, and operating the Clapperboard (slate) at the beginning of each take.
His responsibilities are actually far greater than this as he has responsibility for all aspects of camera care, maintenance and operation. He is responsible for receiving the film from the manufacturers, it's transportation on the set, it's loading into the cameras - The documentation and marking of each take, and sending the exposed film safely to the processors. As you can imagine the loss or damage of a days filming work could cost many tens of thousands of dollars.
The "Clapperboard" or "Slate" is used to track each shot taken. The Clapper Loader will record the information about each shot (production title,director,scene number, take number etc.) and display it to the camera before each take. This allows the editor to identify each piece of film for compilation.
If sound is being recorded (not always the case), the Clapper Loader will also loudly recite the information on the board and also "Clap" the clapper on the top of the clapperboard. The recited information again, makes it possible for the Editor to identify each sound clip for compilation.
The "Clap" of the clapperboard having been recorded visually on film, and audibly on the sound recorder, allows the editor to marry the sound clip accurately with the film clip, ensuring perfect synchronisation of sound and picture.
A Focus Puller may also be referred to as "1st AC" or "First Assistant Cameraperson". The term "Pulling Focus" refers to the act of physically changing the camera lens's focus distance during a take.
A scene will typically begin by establishing positioning for cameras and performers. The actors may then "walk through" the scene and the various points of focus will be established which will then be marked by the 2nd AC by tape or special markers on the floor.
The actors (or a stand-in) will now stand on the marks whilst the Focus Puller measures the distance between the camera and the actor - this will give him his focus distance which he will physically mark by tape, chinagraph pencil or some other means either on the lens barrel, or on the "follow-focus device" which has a large disc designed to accept such markings.
During the take, the actors will arrive at their marks at set points during their performance (hence the Actors reference to "hitting their marks") The Focus puller will then use the marks as cues to pull focus to the pre marked points he has set on the camera or follow-focus device thus ensuring perfect focus
However, a good focus puller will be expected to use his reflexes and experience to compensate, on the fly, for gaffes such as an Actor missing his mark etc. Often, when filming chaotic or unpredictable scenes, a focus puller will work with nothing but his reflexes and experience and work the whole scene on the fly, focusing purely from his monitor.
In some situations, the focus puller will not be able to manipulate the lens directly (i.e. Steadicam, crane, jib and vehicle mounts) and will use a remote-control follow-focus device. Indeed some focus pullers prefer to work the remote control method at all times.
Silly names - Serious jobs
So I hope this little insight into the world of film making will reduce the puzzlement induced when you are scanning the credits on the latest Blockbuster, and you are confronted by the vast army of "behind camera" personnel with strange sounding job titles.
It may also bring realisation of the professionalism and teamwork required to bring a story to the big screen. Each job carries huge responsibilities, as a bungled scene can cost the studio many tens of thousands of dollars, so the pressure to "get it right" is enormous.
Who knows, now that you know a bit more about the industry, it might encourage you to become a Movie Maker yourself one day.