The First 10 Films to Have African-American Casts
1. A Fool and His Money (1912)
Alice Guy, the world’s first female filmmaker, directed over one thousand short films throughout her lifetime. One of them was A Fool and His Money (1912), the first film to star an all-black cast. It was considered lost for decades prior to being found in a flea market in Stockton, California.
Actor James Russell starred as Sam, a poor laborer who pines for a rich woman named Lindy. One day he comes across a large sum of money, which he uses to buy new clothes, jewelry, and a car. Lindy is won over by this display of wealth, and the two become engaged. At the engagement party, Sam gambles away his money, losing everything to a card shark. Lindy runs off with the card shark, and Sam returns to his old job.
In addition to working with actors of different races, Guy was the first woman to own a film studio and one of the first directors to shoot on location. She made her last film in 1920 and sold the studio in 1922.
2. The Railroad Porter (1913)
Back in 2013, New York’s Museum of Modern Art discovered seven reels from an all-black musical-comedy called The Railroad Porter (1913). Curators believe it was shot on set in New York and on location in Englewood, New Jersey. The Museum also uncovered footage of the black actors interacting with a white crew behind the scenes.
This film was produced by the Foster Photoplay Company, the first film company established by an African-American, and the first to produce films with African-American casts. The founder was theatrical promoter and entertainment journalist Bill Foster.
Vaudeville and Broadway pioneer Bert Williams, who starred in The Railroad Porter, also wrote In Dahomey in 1903, the first full-length Broadway musical comedy written and performed by African-Americans. Foster, who worked in publicity at the time, was responsible for promoting it.
The Railroad Porter contains a kiss between Williams and a female co-star—the earliest surviving portrayal of a serious romantic relationship between black characters on film. There’s also a two-minute, full-cast performance of a traditional dance called the cakewalk, which Williams helped popularize among theatrical audiences.
Little to no record of later Foster Photoplay films have survived. They might have had all-black casts, or they might have not.
3. Lime Kiln Club Field Day (1913)
For his next film, Bert Williams collaborated with other African-American actors/musicians, including Abbey Mitchell, who rose to fame in the Broadway production of Porgy and Bess, and Sam Lucas, who later starred in Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1914).
Lime Kiln Field Day (1913), also known as Lime Kiln Club Field Day or Bert Williams: Lime Kiln Field Day, was produced by the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company (1895-1916) and Klaw and Erlanger, a theatrical production duo based in New York City. It starred several members of the Darktown Follies, the short-lived black version of the Ziegfeld Follies.
The plot revolves around a con man, played by Williams, who competes with two other men for the affections of a beautiful woman, played by Odessa Warren Grey. Much of the film takes place on fairgrounds, where the characters are seen dancing, competing for prizes, and going on rides. Such depictions of joy and leisure were unprecedented for black characters at the time.
Klaw and Erlanger left the project in the midst of post-production, leaving the film unfinished. In 1938, the Museum of Modern Art bought 900 cans of film from the Biograph Company, with Lime Kiln Field Day among them. Some of the footage was printed in 1976, and the unedited film was screened for the first time in 2014.
4. Aladdin Jones (1915) / 5. Two Knights of Vaudeville (1915) / 6. Money Talks in Downtown (1917) / 7. A Natural Born Shooter (1918)
Historical Feature Films was one of the first production companies that cast African-American actors. However, the studio was run by white producers, and the films often contained racial stereotypes.
Aladdin Jones (1915) was one such film. Though produced by Historical, it was distributed by Ebony Film Corporations, another company that cast black actors but was run by white producers. Jimmy Marshall played a lazy drunkard with an overbearing wife, played by Florence McClain. The film contains a dream sequence where Marshall fantasizes about finding a magic lamp, which he uses to wish for liquor and a shack to sleep in.
Marshall and McClain worked together again in Two Knights of Vaudeville (1915), a comedy about two buffoonish theater-goers who jump onstage and join the vaudeville show. The film portrays blacks as illiterate, as the intertitles contain grammar mistakes and the hand-drawn advertisements for the theater contain misspellings and backwards letters.
Then, in Money Talks in Downtown (1916), McClain played a greedy, superficial woman looking for a light-skinned rich husband. Marshall’s character tries to win her over by lightening his skin, but is ultimately unsuccessful.
Historical's last film was A Natural Born Shooter (1917), which starred McClain. The other actors were Frank Montgomery and Bert Murphy, who both appeared in Aladdin Jones, Two Knights, and Money Talks. There are no existing records of the plot or film crew.
8. The Realization of a Negro's Ambition (1916)
In 1916, African-American actor Noble Johnson and his brother George founded the Lincoln Motion Picture Company, a studio owned and operated entirely by black filmmakers. As they starred only black actors, the company’s films were only allowed to be screened in “Colored Only” movie theaters, along with select schools and churches.
The purpose of the Lincoln Company was to create more opportunities for black actors, and to take charge of the narratives that often portrayed them unfavorably. The Johnson brothers are now considered the first successful black film producers in Hollywood.
The company’s first production was The Realization of a Negro’s Ambition (1916), a film about a black oil engineer who rescues a white woman and is rewarded with a chance at success in the oil business. This was a subversion of the traditional narrative of the violent black man and the victimized white woman.
Noble Johnson played an unspecified role in the film. Though the Lincoln Company only lasted five years, Johnson's career spanned several more decades, with his last role being a Native American chief in North of the Great Divide (1950).
9. A Trooper of Troop K (1917)
The second film from the Lincoln Motion Picture Company, A Trooper of Troop K (1917) is considered the first “black Western.” Noble Johnson played a 10th Cavalry soldier in the segregated U.S. army. His brother George also played an unspecified role.
The film portrayed the American operation against Mexican revolutionary forces in June 1916, which resulted in a massacre of black troops near the town of Carrizal during their pursuit of General Pancho Villa. Ten U.S. troops were killed along with 45 Mexican soldiers.
Director Harry A. Grant’s previous credit was The Realization of a Negro’s Ambition (1916) from the year before. He went on to direct the Lincoln Company’s last film, By Right of Birth (1921).
10. The Law of Nature (1917)
The Law of Nature (1917), another film from the Lincoln Motion Picture Company, was about an eastern society girl, played by Albertine Pickens, who travels west to work as a governess. She ends up teaching the children of a wealthy cattleman, played by Noble Johnson, who she marries.
When Pickens takes her new family back east, the resulting culture shock makes her realize she can never return to her former life, and that her place is now in the west with her husband.
This film was advertised as “A tremendously powerful story with a wholesome moral” and “A superb race photoplay of the Lincoln quality.” One ad even described Johnson as being “The World’s Greatest Negro Star,” which was evidently a selling point.
One of the actors, Clarence Brooks, previously appeared in The Realization of a Negro’s Ambition (1916). Another actor, Steve Clemente, went on to play the Witch King in King Kong (1933).