Anime vs. Western Comics and Cartoons

Updated on February 25, 2019


Many people, when discussing manga and anime, like to compare them to western comic books and cartoons. This comparison can sometimes yield an interesting discussion about how Japanese culture is different from, and the same as, American culture. It can also show American influences on Japanese animation as well as vice versa.

Western Comics and Cartoons

Disney got its start in the 1930s with the debut hit Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. This enchanting take on a classic fairy tale skyrocketed Disney to the top of the U.S. animation industry in subsequent decades. Disney culturally distinguishes its products as promoting family values and traditional American culture, but they are changing to reflect social changes.

Going back to the 1930s, during that time printing presses were evolving rapidly that could print newspapers and their associated photos faster and in better quality. Translating a colored ink drawing into a printable format wasn't easy back then. Many conventions of the comic book medium in America started being done that way to mitigate issues associated with ink and printing. Comics were first penciled by one artist, then the pencil marks were inked by another, and then when that was dry, a colorist would fill in the color. Comic books soon became a worldwide sensation, having a noticeable effect on the rise of manga (Japanese comics). Originally, the American comic book was just simple, light-hearted entertainment for children. Fear of corrupting children morally meant that in the U.S. at least, comic books had to be mild, inoffensive, and morally clear. It wasn't until later decades that superhero characters became more morally conflicted and psychologically complicated. Like with Disney, the early superheroes promoted faith, patriotism, and family values.

Over time, however, this cultural attitude shifted and American comic books and cartoons have grown more sophisticated, politically complex, and psychologically engaging.

Japanese Anime and Manga

Although anime was in no small way influenced by what was happening with the early development of cartoons in the West, particularly America, it also has some cultural origin that goes deeper into Japanese history. Namely, the woodblock prints the Edo period was quite famous for, many of which showed similar characteristics of the manga art style, such as exaggerated facial expressions, the use of bright primary colors, and more flatness, with less of an influence on photorealism than Western art. This art style of ukiyo-e, or 'floating pictures', was influential on European art during the post-Impressionist period (Van Gogh, Cezanne, etc.). Japanese block prints were easier than the more cumbersome brush paintings to take back to Europe, so the style ended up having a larger impact outside of Japan. Meaning that it's certainly possible that Japanese art influenced the cartoonists and comic book artists in the West who ended up influencing early manga's development in the 50s-70s.

The founding father of manga is Osamu Tezuka, best known for creating Astroboy, Cyborg 009, Kimba the White Lion, and Metropolis. His work has this distinct style that influenced the work of many other creators. Tezuka himself was influenced most by the American 'Donald Duck' comics, so the signature round eyes you see in anime are influenced by that.

Those anime characters with their big eyes... oh... wait...
Those anime characters with their big eyes... oh... wait...

Main Differences and Similarities

While American comic books have always been about entertainment, manga have usually focused more on the author using the medium as their personal voice. Perhaps this is because Japanese culture discourages openly criticizing things, making art a "safe" way to challenge or criticize their society. Early manga is infused with a melancholy feel, at least until prosperity improved in Japan in the 70s. This melancholy is the direct result of the overall postwar despair felt by the entire country. However, in showing child-like innocence such as that of Astroboy, Japan was also keeping alive an attitude that there was some small hope for the future, a hope to recover from the devastation of the loss of the war and the nuclear bombings.

The main differences are that anime is synonymous with a distinct art style, which makes it famous as a medium, although more serious shows subvert the usual paradigm of goofy hair, big eyes, and bright colors. Bit anime's differences with Western comics and cartoons also have a lot to do with cultural differences between Japan and the West.

One panelist that I saw at Acen (a Chicago anime convention) spoke about how, if you ask a Japanese child to draw a comic book, they'll usually draw a giant robot, but if you ask an American child to, they'll probably draw a superhero. This probably reflects different cultural attitudes; a Japanese child is placing their trust in science and technology, while an American places their hope in some kind of outstanding individual with raw talent.

For teenagers, many anime shows emphasize the importance of studying and grades as well as saving the world. Anime also emphasizes relationships, social status, and rank within a group more than other types of shows. For example, in Evangelion, it's Nerv as an organization that does the fighting, as opposed to a superhero comic book, where the hero in question usually works alone. Even with a team of superheroes, such as The Avengers, the X-Men, or The Justice League, it's often more focused on the individual personalities and problems of the characters, with fewer instances of the team acting as one unit. This probably says a lot about differing cultural attitudes.

Is 'Avatar: The Last Airbender' anime? What is and is not anime?

This was a big nerd controversy when the show first came out. There are many artistic similarities between Avatar, Korra, and anime, but I'm going to have to answer "no" to this question. I feel that anime is a product uniquely dependent on the creators being Japanese or living in Japan, because if it lacks that cultural experience, it doesn't make sense to describe it as "anime". Now, this gets hairy, because in Japan, the word "anime" can refer to anything animated, because the word is just a shorthand for "animated", so the word in Japan refers to all cartoons, even non-Japanese ones. However, in the English-speaking world, the word "anime" is used exclusively to be applied to "cartoons from Japan". So if Avatar or another show in question is not from Japan, it should not be considered anime.

When talking about serious, adult-oriented shows in the medium of western animation, that's why I prefer to use terms like "animated series/film" to "cartoon". This is because "cartoon" has this negative connotation in America of being a dumb, shallow, 20-minute toy commercial for kids. But I still enjoy some shows that are cartoons, and you never really grow out of enjoying the truly special ones.

Those anime girls with unrealistically big boobs... oh wait...
Those anime girls with unrealistically big boobs... oh wait...


Anime and manga and western comics and cartoons share a lot in terms of history and mutual influence. However, they are also products unique to the cultures that produced them, and their similarities and differences can be analyzed as such to gain insight into the major cultural differences between Japanese and American cultures. Mainly, that Japanese society places great influence on groups, such as the Sailor Scouts in Sailor Moon, while American comics have always focused more on the workings of individual heroes and "lone wolf" villains.

What do you think about the differences between Japanese anime and manga vs. American/Western comics and cartoons? Let me know in the comments!

Questions & Answers


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • RachaelLefler profile imageAUTHOR

        Rachael Lefler 

        2 years ago from Illinois

        While that is true in most western media, in anime there are some genres that have more clear division between good and evil. If a movie is for little kids, generally it won't have as much moral complexity. The main target demographic for anime is teenagers, so they can do more of that.

        A lot of times a difference is, villains in a lot of anime don't want to be evil, they are forced into it by higher-level villains (like Team Rocket) or they're being controlled by a supernatural evil force (like the possessed boar in Princess Mononoke, or the Digimon controlled by black gears). Evil people in western cartoons are usually driven on a personal level by something they want, like Jafar wanting power, the evil step-mother in Cinderella wanting her daughters to be queen instead of Cinderella, etc.

      • nipster profile image


        2 years ago

        Another important difference to note is that in american cartoons there is a greater tendency to have a stark contrast between good and evil. You know the main character is good and the enemy is bad.

        In anime on the other hand, there isn't necessarily a "Good" and "Evil" side. There are simply opposing forces both of which have good and evil sprinkled throughout like peanuts on an ice cream cone.

      • David Trujillo profile image

        David Trujillo Uribe 

        3 years ago from Medellin, Colombia

        Howls Moving Castle.

        But I was asking if there are any new ones?

      • RachaelLefler profile imageAUTHOR

        Rachael Lefler 

        3 years ago from Illinois

        I was only going to do Spirited Away this month, which is my favorite one. But I can add some to the schedules of future months. What are some of your favorites?

      • David Trujillo profile image

        David Trujillo Uribe 

        3 years ago from Medellin, Colombia

        Yeah, I hate silly cartoons from whever they are.

        In terms of anime my respects go to Gihbli. Got any reviews on those type of films?

      • RachaelLefler profile imageAUTHOR

        Rachael Lefler 

        3 years ago from Illinois

        I was talking about the history of the medium so I was looking at "first", but not necessarily "best".

        I agree, I like 'Heavy Metal'. I think I'll have to review it soon.

        Haven't seen much of 'Afro Samurai'. It just looked like a goofy blaxploitation-style show given a Japanese feel, which is ok, but I was just like "meh".

        It depends on the genre, show, and characters' personalities, but I generally prefer over-the-top acting to wooden acting, like you see in a lot of Hollywood movies. The same "silly reactions" are found in western cartoons as well, that's probably where they get them too, just look at like, "Ren and Stimpy".

      • David Trujillo profile image

        David Trujillo Uribe 

        3 years ago from Medellin, Colombia

        Hmm I think you are missing western best, in the form of the animated DC Comic Films which are top of the line. Watch the latest Batman film.

        An honorable mention to Heavy Metal. That cartoon film was amazing!

        And Afro Samurai

        What I do not like about anime is how silly the characters react most of the time.


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)